Alexander was born in Pella, Macedon in July 356 BC. Born. He was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and of Epirote Princess Olympias. He ascended the Macedonian throne, when twenty years after the death of his father in 336 BC, Chr. War.
Greek cities such as Athens and Thebes, who were forced to promise loyalty to Philip, rebelled. Alexander moved swiftly to crush the rebellions, and Thebes, who had been most fiercely opposed to him, pretended the moment when he appeared at his gates. The Greeks at the Isthmus of Corinth, with the only exception of the Spartans, chose him to command Persia, which had previously been given to his father. In 333 v. Chr. Alexander defeated the Persian Emperor Darius III. Then Alexander successfully marched to Egypt and founded Alexandria, whose triumph followed in Assyria and Babylonia (now Iraq), from where he was victorious to Central Asia. He married Roxana, a Central Asian woman (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement his relations with his new Central Asian satrapies.
In 326 BC, Alexander turned his attention to India. King Ambhi, ruler of Axial, surrendered the city of Alexander. Alexander fought an epic battle against Porus, a ruler of a region in Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC, After the victory Alexander reached his courtesy and kindness to Porus and appointed him as a satra from his own kingdom. Alexander went on to conquer all the Indus’s captains. To the east of Porus’s kingdom, near the bank of the river Ganges, was the powerful kingdom of Magadha, ruled by the Nanda dynasty. He wanted to overpower him, but exhausted by years of traveling and fighting, his army mutinied at Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march farther east. After consulting his officer Coenus, Alexander was convinced that it would be better to return. After traveling to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure, his close friend made Hephaestion’s death Alexander desperate. On his return to Babylon, he became ill and died 323 BC, Chr.
Alexander promoted cultural and racial assimilation, adopted Persian manners, and encouraged interracial marriages. Most historians believe that Alexander has accepted the Persian royal title of shahenshah (the greatest king or king of kings).founded seventy cities, including Alexandria on the Indus in Pakistan, Kandahar (Alexandropolis) in Afghanistan and Alexandria in Egypt. After Alexander’s death his empire was divided by rival monarchies and territorial disputes of his officers. In the end, after the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia in the year 301 BC, Chr. Settled.